By David G. Andrews

A quantitative advent to the Earth's surroundings for intermediate-advanced undergraduate and graduate scholars, with an emphasis on underlying actual ideas. This version has been introduced thoroughly up to date, and now contains a new bankruptcy at the physics of weather swap which builds upon fabric brought in prior chapters, giving the coed a vast figuring out of a few of the actual options underlying this most vital and topical topic. not like many different books on atmospheric technology, the emphasis is at the underlying physics. Atmospheric functions are constructed in general within the difficulties given on the finish of every bankruptcy. The booklet is an important source for all scholars of atmospheric physics as a part of an atmospheric technology, meteorology, physics, Earth technology, planetary technology, or utilized arithmetic path.

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**Extra info for An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics, Second Edition**

**Example text**

Another important measure of the moisture content of air is the relative humidity, deﬁned by e RH = es (T) and usually expressed as a percentage. 5). So long as no condensation or evaporation takes place, this mass μ remains constant. 5. 8 Or, more correctly the speciﬁc humidity: see the footnote on page 20. However, as noted there, we shall ignore the small difference between these two quantities. 35 Moisture in the atmosphere Fig. 6 Saturation vapour pressure (SVP) curve (solid) and vapour pressure curve for a parcel of air containing water vapour of mass mixing ratio = 10−2 = 10 g kg−1 (dashed).

And conveniently measured in units of grammes per kilogramme (g kg−1 ). 42) and the air is unsaturated; it is saturated if μ = μs (T, p) and is supersaturated if μ > μs (T, p). 7 gives a plot of μs as a function of temperature and pressure. 6). e. not following a rising parcel), retaining its water vapour content, for it to become saturated. Therefore, if the water vapour mixing ratio is μ, the dew point Td satisﬁes the implicit equation μs (Td , p) = μ . 43) Equivalently, if the air sample initially has vapour pressure e, then es (Td ) = e.

24) where κ = Ra /cp , which is approximately 27 for a diatomic gas, and S0 is a constant. An adiathermal process is one in which heat is neither gained nor lost, so that δQ = 0. 19) it follows that δS = 0 for such a process. Imagine a cylinder of air, originally at temperature T and pressure p, that is compressed adiabatically until its pressure equals p0 . 23) together with the fact that δS = 0 for an adiabatic process, so that cp δ(ln T) = Ra δ(ln p). Integrating and using the end conditions T = θ and p = p0 then gives cp ln θ T p0 p = Ra ln , and hence, using κ = Ra /cp again, θ =T p0 p κ .