By M. S. Howe
Acoustics of Fluid-Structure Interactions addresses an more and more vital department of fluid mechanics--the absorption of noise and vibration by means of fluid stream. This topic, which deals a number of demanding situations to standard components of acoustics, is of transforming into quandary in areas the place the surroundings is adversely laid low with sound. Howe provides worthy historical past fabric on fluid mechanics and the effortless ideas of classical acoustics and structural vibrations. utilizing examples, lots of which come with entire labored recommendations, he vividly illustrates the theoretical techniques concerned. He presents the root for all calculations beneficial for the decision of sound new release via airplane, ships, basic air flow and combustion structures, in addition to musical tools. either a graduate textbook and a reference for researchers, Acoustics of Fluid-Structure Interactions is a crucial synthesis of knowledge during this box. it's going to additionally reduction engineers within the thought and perform of noise keep watch over.
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Recently, a number of researchers have investigated the use of pH as a stimulus for reversible gelation in polymeric systems [190–192]. The pH-sensitive system could facilitate drug delivery to regions of local acidosis, including sites of infection, neoplasia, or ischemia. The incorporation of carboxylic acid-derived monomers, such as AAc or MAAc, has been carried out to impart pH sensitivity in a variety of copolymers. 4 (pKa 4–5), these polymers can be designed to target acidic regions. However, under physiological conditions, the very low pKa values of PAAc and PMAAc generally limit the use of these polymers for drug targeting to very low pH systems such as the stomach.
Thermosensitive, specific-ion-sensitive or pH-sensitive hydrogels have been examined for their potential as vehicles for ocular drugs. The eye presents a challenge in the development of sustained or controlled release systems owing to its sensitivity and effective protection mechanisms, such as lacrimal secretion and blinking reflex, which cause rapid drainage of bioactive agents after topical administration. Therefore, in situ gels are preferred since they are conveniently dropped as a solution into the eye, where they undergo transition into a gel.
Equilibrium is achieved when these expanding and retracting forces counter balance each other. The equilibrium swelling ratio or water content, given by Eq. 5), is generally used to describe the swelling behavior of hydrogels. 5) Here, Wswollen is the weight of the swollen gel, and Wdry is the weight of the dry gel. The swelling kinetics of hydrogels can also be determined from the swelling kinetic curves. First, the weight of the dry gel (W0) is determined. The dried gel was then immersed in an excess amount of water until the swelling equilibrium was attained.