A tonal grammar of Kwanyama by Riikka Halme

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By Riikka Halme

Kwanyama ('Oshikwanyama' based on the reliable Namibian normal) is a Wambo language, and correspondingly belongs to the Bantu languages. it's spoken by way of way over part 1000000 humans in South Angola and Namibia.
Certainly this quantity contains the audio system of alternative closely-related Wambo forms in Angola. those languages were studied quite little, and the learn in their tonal platforms has been quite ignored. the current e-book is the 1st comic strip of Kwanyama grammar with a scientific account on tone. the most target is to supply an research of the tonal procedure of this language. for that reason the research discusses either the lexical tone, i.e. tone as an inherent estate of a lexeme, and the grammatical tone wich marks grammatical houses. the writer lived in a Kwanyama-speaking neighborhood in Angola for roughly part a yr and had the chance there to enhance her linguistic competence. As a researcher she retains to the culture of Generative Phonology within the experience that there are principles that take the tone styles from the underlying illustration to a binary floor illustration, i.e. tonemes. so that it will aid the reader to persist with the argumentation of the tonal research, this publication is organised in any such means that the segmental and tonal degrees are mentioned individually, via discussions on tone in nouns, verbs and minor notice different types. After that, the learn is said to the broader context of analysis on Guthrie's crew R languages, in particular the Wambo languages. ultimately, the reader reveals nominal and verbal paradigms in addition to a few texts, and a vocabulary Kwanyama-Englisch containing approximately 6,000 entries.

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In practice, it is simpler and more consistent to use the names of the relations (especially the familiar 'Subject' and 'Object'), except where the issue of role is important (as in the early sections of chapter 2). There is a similar situation in those ergative systems that have antipassives. Here, the Agent is promoted to the status held by the Patient in the basic sentence, and it equally cannot be said that the Agent becomes the Patient, but, rather, that the Ergative, the secondary term, is promoted to the Absolutive.

2. 1, there is probably no limit to the notional distinctions that can be made, and it is no part of this book to pursue that issue further. 2 Subject, Object and animacy In a number of languages there are restrictions on the kind of NP that may function as Subject (not merely as Agent, since often the Subject of the passive is involved). Thus Kuno (1973: 30) states that in Japanese transitive verbs normally require animate Subjects. 3): ai-nin omoni-ege yag-il mog-hi-ossta child-Top mother-DAT medicine eat-PAss-PAST 'The child was given medicine by the mother' It has been suggested that, for some languages, the issue is not one of simple animacy, but a hierarchy or scale of animacy or of agency.

This view of Agent and Patient and the causal relation can be extended to verbs of state in such sentences as: The earth attracts the moon The king rules the country It is reasonable to see the earth and the king as the source or cause of the state that affects the moon and the country. There are, however, many verbs for which the Agent and Patient seem to have little correlation with notional agents and patients and no clear causal relation between them. One particularly important set of verbs is that of the verbs of perception, particularly those representing the five senses: John saw the accident Mary heard the cry for help I (can) smell something burning I (can) taste garlic in this soup I (can) feel something sharp here The notional roles involved here are those of perceiver and perceived, and it has been noted that, in almost all languages, perceivers function as Agents and the perceived as Patients.

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