A Student Grammar of French by Malcolm Offord

By Malcolm Offord

A pupil Grammar of French is a concise advent to French grammar, designed in particular for English-speaking undergraduates. maintaining technical element to a minimal, it explains the basics of the grammar in available and straightforward phrases, and is helping scholars to place their studying into perform via a number enjoyable and fascinating workouts. the entire crucial subject matters are coated, with chapters on verbs, nouns, adjectives, pronouns, determiners, prepositions, adverbs, negation, numerals, sentences, and clauses. each grammatical element is illustrated with a number of real examples drawn from magazines and newspapers, overlaying many components of up to date lifestyles resembling model, well-being concerns, relationships and activity. it truly is in actual fact geared up right into a trouble-free, numbered indexing method, permitting the learner to speedy and simply find any grammatical subject. Functioning either as an integral reference consultant and a entire workbook, this grammar turns into the appropriate accompaniment to any first or moment 12 months undergraduate direction.

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Extra resources for A Student Grammar of French

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It is normally formed by taking the first person singular form of the past historic tense, deleting the last letter and adding the appropriate endings. Obtaining the stem – portai → porta–, finis → fini–, courus → couru–, vendis → vendi–, rec¸us → rec¸u– The endings are singular plural –sse –ssions –sses –ssiez –ˆt –ssent Note that for the third person singular a circumflex accent is added to the vowel of the stem. 100 Examples of the imperfect subjunctive Group 1 porter ˆ nous portassions, vous portassiez, je portasse, tu portasses, il/elle portat, ils/elles portassent aller ˆ nous allassions, vous allassiez, j’allasse, tu allasses, il/elle/on allat, ils/elles allassent Group 2 finir je finisse, tu finisses, il/elle/on finˆıt, nous finissions, vous finissiez, ils/elles finissent courir ˆ nous courussions, vous je courusse, tu courusses, il/elle/on courut, courussiez, ils/elles courussent 41 A STUDENT GUIDE TO FRENCH GRAMMAR Group 3 vendre je vendisse, tu vendisses, il/elle/on vendˆıt, nous vendissions, vous vendissiez, ils/elles vendissent eˆ tre ˆ nous fussions, vous fussiez, ils/elles je fusse, tu fusses, il/elle/on fut, fussent Group 4 recevoir ˆ nous rec¸ussions, vous rec¸ussiez, je rec¸usse, tu rec¸usses, il/elle/on rec¸ut, ils/elles rec¸ussent avoir ˆ nous eussions, vous eussiez, ils/elles j’eusse, tu eusses, il/elle/on eut, eussent pouvoir ˆ nous pussions, vous pussiez, ils/elles je pusse, tu pusses, il/elle/on put, pussent Perfect and pluperfect subjunctive tenses 101 Formation The perfect subjunctive is formed by combining the present subjunctive of the auxiliary verbs avoir or eˆ tre with the past participle of the verb, and the pluperfect subjunctive similarly by combining the imperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verbs avoir or eˆ tre with the past participle of the verb.

100 Examples of the imperfect subjunctive Group 1 porter ˆ nous portassions, vous portassiez, je portasse, tu portasses, il/elle portat, ils/elles portassent aller ˆ nous allassions, vous allassiez, j’allasse, tu allasses, il/elle/on allat, ils/elles allassent Group 2 finir je finisse, tu finisses, il/elle/on finˆıt, nous finissions, vous finissiez, ils/elles finissent courir ˆ nous courussions, vous je courusse, tu courusses, il/elle/on courut, courussiez, ils/elles courussent 41 A STUDENT GUIDE TO FRENCH GRAMMAR Group 3 vendre je vendisse, tu vendisses, il/elle/on vendˆıt, nous vendissions, vous vendissiez, ils/elles vendissent eˆ tre ˆ nous fussions, vous fussiez, ils/elles je fusse, tu fusses, il/elle/on fut, fussent Group 4 recevoir ˆ nous rec¸ussions, vous rec¸ussiez, je rec¸usse, tu rec¸usses, il/elle/on rec¸ut, ils/elles rec¸ussent avoir ˆ nous eussions, vous eussiez, ils/elles j’eusse, tu eusses, il/elle/on eut, eussent pouvoir ˆ nous pussions, vous pussiez, ils/elles je pusse, tu pusses, il/elle/on put, pussent Perfect and pluperfect subjunctive tenses 101 Formation The perfect subjunctive is formed by combining the present subjunctive of the auxiliary verbs avoir or eˆ tre with the past participle of the verb, and the pluperfect subjunctive similarly by combining the imperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verbs avoir or eˆ tre with the past participle of the verb.

Ending in –u tenir - tenu, venir - venu and derivatives courir - couru, vˆetir - vˆetu Ending in –ert ouvrir - ouvert, also couvrir, d´ecouvrir, offrir, souffrir. Mourir has a distinctive past participle - mort 24 ˆ ? 63 Avoir or etre Group 3 –re verbs Many Group 3 –re verbs form their past participle in –u Examples vendre – vendu, rompre – rompu, battre – battu, croire – cru, lire – lu, taire – tu = fell silent, apparaˆıtre – apparu = appeared (note croˆıtre – cruˆ = grew), vaincre – vaincu = conquered, boire – bu.

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