By Martin Maiden, Cecilia Robustelli
This Italian reference grammar presents scholars, lecturers and others attracted to the Italian language with a accomplished, obtainable and jargon-free advisor to the varieties and constitution of Italian.
Whatever their point of information of the language, inexperienced persons of Italian will locate this publication vital: it offers transparent and specified motives of every thing from the main hassle-free evidence reminiscent of the relation among spelling and pronunciation, or the different types of the thing, to extra complex issues corresponding to many of the nuances of the subjunctive. Formal or archaic discourse is amazing from casual, daily utilization, and regionalisms also are indicated the place acceptable.
The authors have taken care to make it a simple and illuminating reference device: wide cross-referencing permits readers to quick locate the data they require, and likewise stimulates them to find new, similar proof.
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Additional info for A Reference Grammar of Modern Italian (2nd Edition)
9] E(f|: [$] [9°] ! 40 _,, [<£] ,, Palatalization of 5. ] .  [£] [<] [$$€] and Another group of consonants, known as velars, [g], [k], and x [x], can be both palatalized and non-palatalized. They are palatalized, however, only before the vowel sounds [e] and [i], indeed they are always palatalized before these vowels. In other words, non-palatalized [g], [k], [x] never occur before [i]. Hence the velars [g], [k], and x [x] do not appear in the hard-soft oppositions possible with most consonants: [ga], [ka], xa [xa] [go], [ko], xo [xo] ry [gu], [kuj, xy [xu] before [a]: before [o]: ro before [u]: before [i/i]: before [e]: [gi], [ki], re [ge], [ke], 2 final: [xi] xe x [k], Summary of consonant-vowel [xe] [x] — hard only — hard only — hard only — only — only —hard only soft soft incompatibilities.
12. 13. — — — — — . : : ; . : . ,? ,. . ? , ! — — — 3. Here is a student; here is a co-ed. Here is a table; here is a chair; (over) there a window. 4. This 5. Here are a book, a pen, and (some) paper. Is this a window? No, it's not a window! 7. — — 8. — is is a classroom. a wall; this is is a blackboard. — The window is (over) there. ceiling? No, it's not the ceiling. a blackboard. Is this the It's — the floor. a blackboard or a shelf? this Is — a It's blackboard. — — — 2. It's — — This 6. — ?
The . price of things. a specialist in Russian grammar. The Russian Script 31 The letter =£ , /l> . Copy the following words: . A is Anton Pavlovich Chekhov. IPfo/HJUt. hl. black hat. £ viu2/L,. a physician. -. Write out the following words and phrases: Blue ink. He . speaks Czech. Prague is the capital of Czechoslovakia. Eggs don't teach the hen The J elders know better). , 2fC tracing of capital 2 3 , I can be presented in several stages, as follows: 4_ The small letter is ordinarily written like Copy the following words or phrases: .